hardiwinoto.com-Research can be designed to test some specific hypothesized predictions. For instance, studies have been done to find if controlling aversive noise in the environment increases the performance of individuals in solving mental puzzles. Here, the researcher began with the theory that noise adversely affects mental problem solving. He then developed the hypothesis that if the noise is controlled, mental puzzles can be solved more quickly and correctly. He subsequently designed a research project to test this hypothesis. The results of the study helped the researcher to deduce or conclude that controlling the aversive noise did indeed help the participants to improve their performance on mental puzzles. This method of starting with a theoretical framework, formulating hypotheses, and logically deducing from the results of the study is known as the hypothetic-deductive method of conducting research.
Another method of doing research is the inductive method, which proceed in the opposite direction inasmuch as the researcher begins with data in hand and generates hypotheses and a theory from the ground up (Glaser and Strauss, 1967; Selltiz, Wrightman, and Cook, 1981). An example of this is a researcher having access to data on consumer reactions to various new products and trying to make sense of what all that could mean to new product development. She might develop some hypotheses and test them. Most of the participants observe studies that we will discuss in Cahapter 7 (Sekaran, 1992) are inductive studies. Generally, however, both inductive and deductive methods are used to study phenomena.
Sekaran, Uma. 1992. Research Methods For Business, Skill Building Approach. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Singapore.